The past two decades have seen South-South cooperation (SSC) and triangular cooperation grow at a spectacularly fast pace in terms of the scale, scope and diversity of the modalities and the amount of resources involved. Two Southern countries – China and India – stand apart, although Southern providers such as other BRICS and MINT countries1 have also made their presence felt in this new financial ecosystem. Particularly in recent years, China and India, among other BRICS and MINT countries, have launched several initiatives that have elevated South-South development cooperation to a new high level. These countries have set up institutional architecture that is geared to managing overseas development assistance programmes and are at present dealing with several multi-billion-dollar initiatives to harness the opportunities offered by SSC in the Africa and Asia regions.
This study examines the coherence between Indian LoCs and investment and trade policies at the level of the recipient country, Bangladesh, in order to see the extent to which this example of SSC is aligned with the development needs of Bangladesh. The study uses an analytical framework based on recent literature that deals with SSC, coherence and SDG delivery. Specific questions included in the proposed framework are: (a) whether the trade and investment flows are aligned with national development strategies in recipient countries (national policy alignment); (b) the extent to which the SSC-supported projects are attuned to the priorities of the recipient countries (priority alignment); (c) whether the selected projects and deliverables are aligned with SDG implementation strategies and plans (SDG coherence); (d) whether the process being pursued (conditionalities) by the provider countries imposes binding constraints for recipient countries (process efficiency); and (e) whether accountability frameworks are in place to ensure that the projects deliver the expected outputs (accountability concerns).